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  • Aspiration

Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success : A Focus on Self-Regulated Learning 

Myron H. Dembo and Helena Seli

Dembo and Seli maintain that “Goals serve as the basis of motivation.”that how allocating your attention, how you work hard and how long we persisting at a task are all affected by goals. 

Everything starts with values, which are sometimes called principles or beliefs. Long-term goals are developed by translating principles and beliefs into long-term achievements. Long-term goals, in turn, are attained through a series of intermediate

goals. Finally, the intermediate goals are attained through a series of specific, goal-oriented daily tasks. Smith (1994) stated: “Values explain why you want to accomplish certain things in life. Long-range goals describe what you want to accomplish.”.If an individual’s goals are not aligned with his or her values, the individual may never be satisfied with his or her accomplishments because he or she will be neglecting the things that matter most. Also, if the individual completes daily tasks that do not reflect long-range and intermediate goals, he or she will be busy doing things, but will not be productive.

Research (Locke & Latham, 2002) has demonstrated that people with goals outperform thosewithout goals, and, generally speaking, when you have a goal, you are likely to perform better than when you do not have a goal.Goal setting is a planning process and, as stated, an important aspect

of self-regulation. This process puts meaning in people’s lives, helps them

achieve their dreams and ambitions, and sets up positive expectations for

achievements.Students who set goals and develop plans to achieve them

take responsibility for their own lives. They do not wait for parents or teachers

to instruct them as to what they should be doing with their lives.


Each goal you set should be SMART: specific, measurable, action-oriented,realistic, and timely.

The following steps should be used each time you set a goal:

a. Identifying and defining the goal

b. Generating and evaluating plans

c. Making implementation plans

d. Implementing the plan

e. Evaluating your progress

  • Self-awareness

“Motivation to study”

The University of Melbourne


Self-awareness is the ability to see yourself clearly and objectively through reflection and introspection.[QS[1] While it may not be possible to attain total objectivity about oneself (that’s a debate that continues to rage throughout the history of philosophy), there are certainly degrees of self-awareness.It exists on a spectrum. Although everyone has a fundamental idea of what self-awareness is, we don’t know exactly where it comes from, what its precursors are, or why some of us seem to have more or less than others. 

Our level of self-awareness interacts with the likelihood of success in realigning ourselves and our standards to determine how we think about the outcome. When we are self-aware and believe there is a high chance of success, we are generally quick to attribute that success or failure to our efforts.


Conversely, when we are self-aware but believe there is a low chance of success, we tend to think that the outcome is more influenced by external factors than our efforts (Silvia & Duval, 2001). Of course, sometimes our success in realignment with our standards is driven in part by external factors, but we always have a role to play in our successes and failures.


Self-awareness allows us to see things from the perspective of others, practice self-control, work creatively and productively, and experience pride in ourselves and our work as well as general self-esteem (Silvia & O’Brien, 2004).It leads to better decision-making (Ridley, Schutz, Glanz, & Weinstein, 1992).


It can make us better at our jobs, better communicators in the workplace, and enhance  

our self-confidence and job-related wellbeing (Sutton, Williams, & Allinson, 2015).

Five ways to increase your self-awareness:

1. Create space and time

Connect with yourself daily

Avoid digital distractions 

Carve out solitude 

2. Practice mindfulness

Pay attention to your inner state as it arises

Try mindful walking, eating, listening

3. Journal your awareness 

Process your thoughts through writing

Record your inner state

4. Practice listening

Pay attention to speaker

Observe emotions and body language 

Don’t judge or evaluate 

5. Gain a different perspective 

Ask for a feedback


  • Curiosity

“How to Increase Your Curiosity for a Better Self”

Laura Winter

Curiosity is at the base of all intelligence — without the desire to learn things, there is no advancement, innovation, or growth. It drives creativity and innovation, fills us with wonder, and is a source of intrinsic motivation. The desire to know pushes us beyond fear and towards our goals.


As adults, we’ve lost that sense of amazement at the little things. Often, society has trained us to be quiet based in fear — the fear of looking stupid 


But not knowing, and asking about it, is a sign of curiosity. We should be rewarding this behavior, much like we do a child when we give them the information they desire or point them in a direction they can find the answers they need.


So the next chance you have where you don’t know something, be curious and enter with a clear, childlike mind. Accept being a beginner.Fight through your fear and instead see it as wonder, as a chance to experience something for the first time. Be curious about what new things you can learn.

Five ways to increase your curiosity

  1. Enter with childlike mind

  2. Ask questions

  3. Get out of your comfort zone

  4. Dabble with different interests

  5. Connect with people

  • Vulnerability and Achievement

“How to Deal With Academic Failure in Eight Steps (Starting By Not Calling It Failure)”

Milena Le Fouillé

Academic failure is not only a way to reexamine your study methods and get even better at what you do. It's also an opportunity to learn more about yourself, about your resilience and your determination to keep going forward, no matter what. It's a chance to reflect upon your dream and the professional path you want to take and to find the courage to let go of it if it's no longer truly what you want to do.

How to deal with academic failure in eight steps

A.      Give yourself a time to grieve

B.       Don’t rush into anything

C.       Develop interests outside of your chosen field

D.      Recognize and salute the work you’ve put in 

E.       Take comfort in your friends and family, but remember that you know yourself best

F.       Stay away from negative influences

G.      Find inspiration in unusual journeys

H.      Remember that you never learn as much as failure

Deep Diving

屏幕快照 2020-07-27 下午4.13.31.png



埃里卡·安德森(Erika Anderson)




Dweck,Carol S.1946-(作者)

紐約:芭蕾舞書籍; 2008年Ballantine Books貿易PBK。 ed ..



塔利·莎羅(Tali Sharot)




  • Metacognitive Concept&Theory

Before applying on the study process, the definition and knowledge of metacognition should be grasped first through the literature review in order to assist further practical steps. The expression of “metacognition” is developed more by the American psychologist, John Flavell. According to Flavell (1979), “metacognition” refers to “thinking about thinking”. To explain further of this concept, metacognition is usually broadly defined as knowledge that related to cognitive process and result, or any cognitive activities of cognitive process adjustment; because of its core of “thinking of thinking”, it is called “metacognition”. (Flavell, 1985) In the initial concepts that raised by Flavell, metacognition is divided into two aspects, which are “metacognition knowledge” and “metacognition experience/regulation”. 

Referring to Flavell (1979), “metacognition knowledge consists primarily of knowledge or beliefs about what factors or variables act and interact in what ways to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises (p.907).” This aspect can be separated into three variables which are person, task and strategy. Knowledge of person variables means common knowledge related to how people study and process information, and also the individual knowledge of an individual’s learning procedure, while knowledge of task variables encompass understanding about the nature of the task and the sort of processing demands that it will place upon the individual. The final variables, strategy, refers to knowledge related to both cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and the conditional knowledge about when and where it is suitable to use the strategies. (Livingston, 2003) As for the second aspect, metacognitive experiences can be explained as conscious reflections about the cognitive process. (Moritz & Lysaker, 2018) According to Alias and Sulaiman (2017), the concepts and elements of “metacognition” are organized into a chart in Figure 1 which can show the structure of metacognition clearly.

After Flavell raised the “metacognition” term in 1979, there are more studies and explanation with adjustments related to this knowledge from various scholar. Brown raised another explanation of metacognition in 1980s, which divided this concept into “knowledge about cognition” and “regulation of cognition”. (Louca, 2003) Knowledge about cognition refers general cognitive knowledge, individual cognitive situation and understanding on individual and surrounded environment’s interaction of a learner. Regulation of cognition is the executive control of a learner, which includes planning, monitoring and checking. (Pang & Lee, 2008). In addition, Cross and Paris (1988) defined metacognition as “the knowledge and control children have over their own thinking and learning activities, including reading” (p. 131). They then divided this concept into two mental activities, which are “self-appraised knowledge about cognition” and “self-management of one’s thinking”. (Cross & Paris, 1988)

  • Metacognition vs. Cognition

Although the concepts of metacognition and cognition seems two individual terms, their relationship is inseparable. Alias and Sulaiman (2017) mention that metacognition is a sort of cognition and therefore metacognition is always with cognition. This shows the close linkage between these two concepts. According to Livingston (2003), she mentioned that Flavell admits that there may not have difference between metacognitive knowledge and cognitive knowledge, and it all depends on the way of the information used. In order to analyze their relationship, the comparison on the definition of these two terms can be done. Cognition refers to the utilization of conscious mental procedures, which includes memory, coding, information processing, creative thinking, critical thinking and decision making, etc. (Cambridge Dictionary; Pang & Lee, 2008) The relationship of cognition and metacognition may be progressive, as cognition is the basic conscious while the metacognition is the higher level conscious happening after the cognition, as well as the monitoring of it. Referring to Alias and Sulaiman (2017), they indicate “metacognition uses HOTS (high order thinking skills) to monitor both LOTS (low order thinking skills) and HOTS cognitive processes and the monitoring can only be efficient and effective with adequate understanding of metacognition. (p. 24)” This proves the progressive relationship between the two terms that metacognition is a higher-level ability to organize and monitor cognition of a person.

  • Metacognitive Strategies

Metacognition Strategies is the important element in metacognition concept, which has linkage with the metacognition knowledge and experience on improving one’s metacognition ability. Referring to Trigueros, Aguilar-Parra, Lopez-Liria, Cangas, González and Álvarez (2020), “metacognition strategies are those that allow students to observe their own learning process using various resources that serve to plan, monitor, and evaluate their own progress. (p. 2)” According to Brown’s structure of metacognition, the regulation of cognition, which is the executive control, includes the planning, monitoring and checking (evaluating) elements. (Pang & Lee, 2008) These three elements divide the metacognition strategies to various direction on assisting the metacognition application in different fields. Therefore, different specific strategies will be discussed at the following according to these three perspectives. The usage of each strategy will be analyzed on students’ study, especially in design field.

       a. Planning Strategy (e.g. planning; time management )

The usage of planning will make people to clarify the purpose of solving a problem, which is also a kind of metacognitive activity. (Alias & Sulaiman, 2017) Therefore, planning before learning or designing may help students’ on grasping more about their objectives or aims on their action, which can contribute to a learning progess with strong sense of goal achieving. According to Brown, Chanpione and Day (1981), there are four points to be considered while designing a learning plan that are available strategies (general and specific) for learning activities, characteristics of the learner, nature of the materials and the aim and purpose of the learning activity. To be more detailed, Hargrove (2007) points out some specific steps on planning in the metacognition regulation:

  1. Stating a goal

  2. Selecting operations to perform

  3. Sequencing operations

  4. Identifying potential obstacles/errors

  5. Identifying ways to recover from obstacles/errors Predicting results desired and/or anticipated (p.63)

These methods can be also applied into every design learning and practices, especially before a design project is going to start as it can become an all-rounded preparation to ensure design process goes smoothly.

       b. Monitoring Strategy (e.g. observing; judging; enquiring; communicating)

Metacognitive monitoring is a monitoring to cognitive process, which includes self-evaluation, self-correction, change of strategies and planning again, etc. (Pang & Lee, 2008) Besides, monitoring includes the ability to perceive, acknowledge and measure process toward a person’s objectives. (Hargrove, 2012) While adopting this concept to design, it has vital effect on the design achievements. Referring to Hargrove (2012), students can be able to ensure themselves on track to achieve their project aims with the monitoring on usage of creative strategies. During the monitoring process, students can ask question such as “How do I make sure that I do not make mistakes?” (Alias & Sulaiman, 2017) At the following, different strategies on monitoring will be discussed.

       c. Evaluating Strategy (e.g. theorizing)

Metacognition evaluating is the evaluation to cognitive activities, which aims to achieve cognitive mission effectively. (Pang & Lee, 2008) To be more detailed, evaluating means the assessment on learners’ recent knowledge status, encompassing tracking of their attention as they study, and self-testing and enquiring, and this occurs continuously (before, within and after a task). (Lawanto, 2010) Choi (2006) indicates that “the purpose of metacognition evaluation is to encourage students to think about such problems (e.g. poor performance) by reflecting upon themselves through self-evaluation. (p.277)” According to Hargrove (2007), the operation of evaluation includes the fellow elements:

  1. Evaluating goal achievement

  2. Judging accuracy and adequately of the results 

  3. Evaluating appropriateness of procedures used 

  4. Assessing handling of obstacles/errors

  5. Judging efficiency of the plan and its execution (p. 63)

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